Object Oriented Methods and Structual Oriented Method – Computer Science Research Paper
Object oriented methods and structural oriented methods have played important role which has significant impact in software development. The popularity of object oriented technology has grown dramatically, because of their new techniques. This can provide high-quality software and full-scale projects were developed that proved the promise. In addition, the object oriented
approach views a system as a collection of interacting objects. Objects are capable of behaviors that call methods and that allow the objects to interact with other and with people using the systems. However, the functional oriented method approach differs from the object oriented method. It means that the structural oriented method approach views a system as a collection of processes and done by computes. In addition, It executes processes interact with data entities and processes accept inputs and produce outputs. Therefore, this essay will look at the view in which object oriented methods with functional oriented methods in software development and their views for these two techniques. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the role of object oriented method in software development, industrial use of object oriented techniques.
Object oriented method can increase design quality, improve productivity in software development. This technique can cause system that is a collection of interacting objects and objects interact with people and each other. They have many kinds of method that using in software development such as use cases, interface object, object oriented structured design “OOSD” and object oriented programming. According to research by Satzinger, Jackson and Burd (2000, pp. 221-227), it is affirmed that “the object-oriented approach uses the term use case to describe an activity the system carries out in response to an event”. This study demonstrates that a use case is a special sequence of transactions. It leads to system interacting with a user in dialogue and a user can be an object which represents anyone that is external to the system and interacts. Thus, it can be said that the use cases are handled during a great number of activities. Moreover, Sodhi and Sodhi (1996, pp.149-169) state that interface object explain between users and the system in software development. This study also indicates that all communication between users and the system goes through interface object. In addition, several use cause uses can be reached via one interface object. However, one use case may communicate with outside system via another interface object, so it can be said that interface object is one kinds of important thing in software development because that can represent all communication between users and the system in software development process. According to research by Sodhi and Sodhi (1996, pp. 162-168), it is confirmed that object oriented structured design “OOSD” is to support system into software architecture. This study demonstrates that this method approaches are based on the identification of the classes of objects in a system and the classes explain their class’s behavior and structure. These classes are derived from classes that have used previous designs and support reused. Furthermore, this methods can bring many kinds of benefits that increase design quality, improve productivity and it can be used for many different type of programming language such as C++ and Java. The most important is object oriented structured design supports reuse of designs. As a result, a generic class’s resource can be used in the derived class for many system and application. Moreover, Narayanan, Bodner, Sreekanth, Govindarai and al (1998, pp.1-6) state that “object-oriented programming has been revolutionizing software development and maintenance”. Their study shows that object oriented programming “OOP” has a major effect on implementation via its facilitation of modular design and software reusability. It has some features such as encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism. These features can build simulation models and implement reusable classes and store them in a software library. Thus, that can be rapid development. Consequently, it can be said that object oriented method can be easily reused, refined, tested, maintained and extended in software development. This methodologist can be improving problem area in existing techniques and help them avoid these problems when developing new techniques.
Object oriented techniques “OOT” impact industrial from one generation to next generation. Although object oriented methods is a complete different with structural oriented, its techniques impetus industrial tend to save cost, save time, high quality. Thus, this techniques lead to developing a flexible manufacturing control system. According to research by Bruccoleri, Diega and Perrone (2003, pp. 1-5), it is confirmed that object oriented techniques improve manufacturing control system. This study shows that business organizations need to develop to their system in flexible and automation ways. Their system need to support uncertainties from internal or external environments. For instance, flexible manufacturing system “FMS” component can be modeled as an object that provide some kinds of function such as interacts with several other objects, so extendible, developing reusable and modifiable control software for FMS using UML diagrams are caused by this methodology. As a result, OOT is significant impact in industrial. Furthermore, Chin and Gary (1997, pp.1-5) state that OOT can change the component depend on the real environment. This study also indicates that modeling of actual devices and process can make the real-world system which can enable the computer model to change accordingly with real-world changes in actual physical devices. As a result, it assures the working process that has the result of determinism, save cost and real-time control and it is suitable for chemical process industries. Thereby, it can be concluded that object oriented techniques bring flexible for development process in business and it usually use in chemical process, because the result are needed determinism, real-time control.
Functional-oriented designed methods decompose a system into the interacting functions which able to minimize amount of system state information and share information explicit. Thus, the management of the complexity program is become efficiency. According to Alpuente and Falaschi and Vidal (1998, p. 53) “Functional logic programs which is able to automatically improve program performance without changing the computational meaning and which still guarantees termination.” This research indicates that the function-oriented method in software development is benefit on integral program performance. Subsequently, the output of the functional-oriented is depended by a single input and is not affected by the input history. In this program method, the system is implemented as a continuous loop and actions are started until the order. Many kind of system which involves transaction-processing systems and business data-processing systems are fell into this class. Such as customer account, microprocessor control applications and automated teller machine Hoffer and George and Valacich(1999, pp.319-320). This research indicates that the functional-oriented use in business and industries program extensively. Functional-oriented program can be designed by the several methods which involve data flow diagram, structured English, decision tables and decision tree. According to Hoffer and George and Valacich(1999, pp. 277-317) , software development of function-oriented is usually followed by the process modeling diagrams. These diagrams which illustrate the movement of data between external entities and the processes and data stores within a system in several symbols are clearly indicate the program structure to the user and editor Therefore, software cost is saved by structured analysis techniques implementation. This research support that the structures of functional-oriented which reduce requirements flaw fix time is made the program implementation productivity. Consequently, it can be said that functional-oriented designed method which improve the program performance and productivity is generally used in industries and business program.
The functional-oriented techniques are extensively used in industries program which involve data processing, transaction processing and process control. Functional-oriented design is following the centralized management control. Thus function may also maintain local state information until their execution. For example, automatic teller machines which installed outside of the branch are controlled by transaction processing system. It operates the service to a user independently and do not interact with each other and there by the system state maintained by the program is minimal (Satzinger & Jackson & Burd, 2000, pp.170-184). This research support that the functional-oriented would probably significantly more maintainable in business program. Furthermore, centralize management is variety use in business and industries program. Johnson (1997, pp. 213-251) researches that the programs which are in database store procedures to extensions to the SQL language. The SQL language allows the different level of procedural logic to be executed as part of an SQL call. A functional extension of database triggers, which are used for expressing integrity constraints and business rules. This research indicates the use of functional-oriented in database program is essential. Subsequently, compare with both of the designed method in business model, object-oriented development performance may not better than procedural development. Potok and Vouk(1997 pp.12-15) research that “the relationship between the business model and the productivity that a software development methodology can achieve a commercial environment under that model are explored.” Consequently, the object-oriented develop performance do not perform better than procedural development in the lack incentives environments which is for early completion of intermediate project tasks. This research indicates that functional-oriented method in industries program is better than object-oriented method.
It can be seen that object-oriented methods and structural-oriented methods which has significant impact in software development are play the important role in software development. Object-oriented methods implement in software development can be easily reused, refined, tested, maintained and extended. Hence, the flexible development process in business is brought by object-oriented techniques. Functional-oriented methods in software development improve the program performance, centralized the program management and minimize the program statement. Thus, the functional-oriented techniques are extensively used in industries program. Although the object-oriented method can increase design quality and improve productivity in software development, function-oriented design will continue alongside to it because of a large amount of legacy code which has been designed using functional-oriented approach. Therefore, the view of object-oriented methods and functional-oriented method in software development indicate that both techniques are benefit on industrial used. In the future, software development designed method intends to combine functional and object-oriented approach and thereby the two models are related together to combine the two different views of system.
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