Modern Chinese History– Chiang Kai-Shek

The introduction of Chiang Kai-Shek.
By the question above, I’d like to discuss Chiang Kai-Shek. Why I choose him as today’s topic? Because I thought Chiang’s life, and people surrounding him were dramatic, and he was a key person of influencing today’s relationship of China and Tai Wan. Let’s see what he did in his life.

Chiang Kai-Shek was born on October 31st, 1887 in the ZheJiang FengHua, and died on April 5th,1975 in TaiBei. He was the leader of Kuomintang (KMT), and hold the power of the KMT, government, and the armies. Chiang’s father Chiang ZhaoCong inherited the ancestral legacy — management salt shop. After Chiang’s father died, he was bring up by his mother Wang CaiYu. When he was child, he entered the private school studied traditional textbooks. By the spring of 1906, he studied in Tokyo School for continuing his failure study in China. During the studying in Tokyo School, he knew Chen QiMei, Chen QiMei had the influnce on Chiang Kai-Shek for the anti-Qing government. He had stayed in Tokyo School until the end of that year. In 1907, he had entered the BaoDing Nation Army Intensive School and studied for artillery. In 1908 spring, he went to Tokyo military school. During the studying, Chen QiMei invited Chiang to participate alliance association for the anti-Qing revolutionary activity. After the 1910 graduation, he entered the Japanese Army 13th division of 19th regiment as a military officer (but in the waiting list.).

Joins in the democratic revolution, Get the trust of Sun Yat-Sen
After the 1911 Revolution happened, Chiang Kai-Shek returned to ShangHai, he was taken the order of Chen QiMei to lead the vanguard of hundred people to HangZhou, to join the recover of the ZheJuang. To follow the step of Chen QiMei (fifth group regimental commanders) and the ShangHai armed forces second division Huang Fu (Division Commander) sworn of the brotherhood. In January 1912, he was dispatched by Chen QiMei, and ordered him to buy off a scoundrel to assassinate restoration society leader Tao ChengZhang. After the assassination, he escaped to Japan. In 1913 summer, the second revolution had broken out. He participated in the attachment of ShangHai¡¦s weapon manufacturing factories. After the matter defeated, he lived in seclusion ShangHai. In October joined the Chinese revolutionary party which was still under construction, and went to Japan in November. In July 1914, Sun Yat-Sen in Tokyo announced that Chinese revolutionary party had been established officially. At the same time, Chiang Kai-Shek was dispatched to ShangHai, and Harbin to assist Chen QiMei to be engaged in opposes of Yuan ShiKai¡¦s revolutionary activities. After the May of 1916, Chen QiMei was assassinated, Chiang Kai-Shek was dispatched by Sun Yat-Sen to go to ShanDong to be Chinese revolutionary army DongBei Army chief staff officers. After Yuan Shikai died, the Chinese revolutionary army was dismissed and Chiang occupied to ShangHai. In July 1917 Sun Yat-Sen went to the south and established Republic of China Military government. And in March 1918, Chiang Kai-Shek was appointed to GuangDong as director of headquarter operations section. And after year, he was appointed to GuangDong armed forces second crew commanders in FuJian. But the military officer always crowded out him, he often left his work to stagnate in ShangHai. And formed the partnership with Zhang JingJiang, Chen GuoFu, and Dai JiTao to do the exchange business. In June 1922, GuangDong Commander-in-Chief Chen JiongMing revolted, Sun Yat-Sen sought asylum in the YongFeng ship, Chiang went to GuangZhou to ascend the ship and waited for 40 days. That obtained Sun Yat-Sen’s trust. In October, Chiang was sent by Sun Yat-Sen to be the east road anti-revolt second armed force chief staff officer. In February 1923, he was appointed to be the supreme headquarter chief office of generalissimo government. In August, he received order to lead the Dr. Sun Yat-Sen delegation to go to Soviet to inspect the study military, politics and the party affairs.
Manage the HuangPu Military Academy, Destroy the KMT-Chinese communist cooperation
In January 1924, KMT had the first National People¡¦s Congress decided the establishment military academy to train revolutionary armies. Sun Yat-Sen appointed Chiang Kai-Shek as the principal of military academy and the headquarter chief officer of GuangDong army. But he started to doubt than Sun Yat-Sen alliance with Russia, CCP, and assisted the farmer those policies. As there was no support at that time, Chiang performed to carry out to a certain extent. He entrusted with heavy responsibility the trusted subordinate in the military academy for cultivating personal influence, and support the anti-CCP member to established the Sun Wen principle academic society. He also suppressed and attacked young serviceman association at the same time. He organized and lead the HuangPu military academy teachers and students to suppress the Guangzhou merchant militia rebellion in October 1924; In February 1925, made an expedition to the east punitive expedition Chen JiongMing; In June, suppressed Yang XiWen, Liu ZhenHuan rebels¡¦ campaigns, the victories were outstanding, therefore he obtained the prestige. So he had promoted to ChaoXian damage control supervisor, GuangZhou garrison commander. In August 1925, HuamgPu military academy¡¦s two guidance groups arranged as the national revolutionary army, Chiang as the commander. After Liao ZhongKai was killed, he supported Wang JingWei to pursue Hu HanMin to go abroad. And soon had driven Commander-in-Chief Xu ChongZhi out to GuangZhou. After that, he incorporated GuangDong army partial divisions and brigades, a great leap became the most important character in KMT¡¦s military. In October, he commanded troops to the second expedition, and wiped out Chen JiongMing¡¦s rebellious army. In January 1926, KMT second session National People¡¦s Congress, he was elected as central executive, and central permanent committee member; In February, he held a concurrent post as the national revolutionary army inspector. After Sun Yat-Sen passed away, Chiang Kai-Shek suspected day by day of the three policies, and envy KMT left wing and the communist party member cooperate work together as colleagues, and apprehended Soviet Union consultant’s work. He made ZhongShan ship event in March 20, 1926, in May he proposed the party committee reorganized documents at the KMT-CCP second session plenary conference, the document had repelled the first army and the central party committee worker who were CCP member. He seized the opportunity to seize military committee president, the national Central Party Committee one after another has organized minister, serviceman minister, national revolutionary army commander-in-chief as well as important posts and so on national Central Party Committee Standing committee president.

After July 1926, the Northern Expedition started, Chiang Kai-Shek led the general headquarters to go to the front direction combat. The national revolutionary army defeated BeiYang warlords Wu PeiFu, Sun ChuanFang under the workers and farmers supported, HuNan, HuBei, JianXi, FuJian that four provinces had recovered completely, and continued to go to HeNan, AnHui, ZheJiang. Chiang Kai-Shek sought for the dictatorship rule the ambition to inflate day by day. In December, national Central Party Committee Party committee and the national government move to WuHan from GuangZhou, but Chiang persisted must move the capital NanChang, intent controlled the government. In March 1927, the Kuomintang second session of Third Session had a series of enhanced the party power through “Unification party’s Leading Draft resolution”, prevented personal dictatorship and the military despotic resolution, have cancelled President Chiang’s central standing committee and serviceman minister the duty. Therefore, Chiang Kai-Shek destroyed three policies deliberately, tolerated and instigated the hoodlum in JiangXi, AnHui to make a series of anti events, in the Britain-America imperialism and under the JiangSu and ZheJiang provinces plutocrat’s support, started a coup in ShangHai, brutal slaughtered communist party member and revolutionary group, and Guangdong started respectively party purge, thus destroyed the first Kuomintang-Chinese communist cooperation.

The establishment dictatorship rule, Suppresses inner and compromise the foreign
On April 18, 1927 Chiang Kai-Shek set up the new national government in NanJing, confronted with WuHan National Government. In June, Chiang Kai-Shek and Feng YuXiang held a meeting in HsuChou, cbtained the cooperation of anti-CCP. Chiang Kai-Shek had contradicted with Wang JingWei, Li ZongRen and the struggle is isolated with no support, being compelled retire in August, and in October visited Japan to seek the support. After returning to homeland, abandoned the wife, married with Song MeiLing on December 1, and on with Song ZiWen, Kong XiangXi married, strengthen through them with US’s relation. In January1928, took the responsibility again on commander-in-chief, in February managed the Kuomintang two sessions of Fourth Plenary Session, changed Sun Yat-Sen’s revolutionary policy comprehensively. He was lifted as central politics commission chairman and military committee president at the meeting. In April, with Feng YuXiang, Yan XiShan, Li ZongRen formed four group armies to enter with joint north forces, and had defeated warlords Zhang ZuoLin, finished BeiYang warlords’ rule. In October, he became national government president the concurrently commander in chief of the army, navy and airforce. The duty was reorganization national government, implemented to rule a nation as the party political tutelage. Chiang Kai-Shek must establish individual dictatorship rule the aspect, constructed by the disarmament and tried to discontinue Feng YuXiang, Yan XiShan, Li ZongRen’s armies, intensified with various military power faction, and caused internal conflict. Chaing-Wu war, Chaing-Feng war, Chaing-Yan-Feng war were continuously. Chiang Kai-Shek relies on the imperialism and the JiangSu-ZheJiang provinces big bourgeoisie support, has defeated each military power. He had also defeated Wang JingWei, Hu HanMin, Sun Ke, thus consolidated his own dictatorship rule.
From December 1930 to September 1931, Chiang Kai-Shek assembled the massive armies, JiangXi, HuNan, HuBei, HeNan, AnHui and other revolutionary base Red Army started three military encirclement continuously, those defeated to an end. After exigency occurs, he carried out ¡§not to resist¡¨, obstructed army and the people who resisted Japan to invade, caused northeast three provinces to perish rapidly. The Japanese invaders provoked ¡§1 ¡P 28¡¨ exigency in ShangHai at the beginning of 1932, 19th route armies rose spiritedly to resist, but Chiang Kai-Shek submitted in the Japanese imperialism pressure, signed the agreement ¡§ShangHai Ceasefire agreement¡¨. The agreement made Japanese imperialism expansion to compromise repeatedly to North China and concession Japanese invaded. He also signed the humiliation ¡§the Tang-Ku Agreement¡¨. He suppressed the patriotic soldiers and civilians’ protection, forced Feng YuXiang to cancel the Chahar people against Japan allied forces. Chiang Kai-Shek adopted stubbornly ¡§domestic strength keeps away foreign aggression¡¨. In June 1932, he started the fourth military Red Army encirclement defeated, and carried on the fifth military encirclement in October 1933. After a year engaging in fierce battle, Red Army because of the strategic instruction mistake the unfavorable situation, they left JiangXi to embark the Long March. Chiang moved several thousand armies besieged the Red Army, and exterminated the revolutionary countries simultaneously.
Chiang Kai-Shek strengthened the dictatorship rule vigorously, established by HuangPu member as backbone central bureau and bureau of investigation two types of spy, the spy¡¦s duty as destroying the communist party and the revolutionary organization’s patriotic democracy activities, killed the Communist and the patriotic democratic personage, and coped with the anti-Chiang clique. Chiang Kai-Shek had a cultural suppression in Kuomintang areas, forbad the progressive books and periodicals, persecuted left-wing writers and cultural worker. He carried out the new life movement in the nation, stepd up to people’s ideology control. He also relies on the government privilege, with Song Ziwen, Kong Xiangxi, Chen Guofu, Chen Lifu together, the establishment and the development state capitalism economy, formed the bureaucratic capital gradually. They set up the Central Bank and the peasant bank, annexed Bank of China and the Communications Bank, had monopolized the national finance system. Following that was gradually develops to the industry and commerce and other civilian economic departments, held the national economic lifeline. In November 1935, Japanese imperialism instigated ¡§North China autonomous¡¨, expanded unprecedented to China’s aggression, the national crisis serious. Chinese Communist Party appealed to stop civil war of consistent to Japan, and opposed Japan anti-Chiang policy change to compel Chaing to oppose Japan. Under the national salvation opposed Japan impetus in the whole nation, Chiang Kai-Shek and Kuomintang decided adjusts its domestic policies, and came to a conclusion that must maintain the territorial sovereignty the integrity. He issued an order to adopt a series of enhancement national development, and improved the relationship of Soviet Union. He attempted with the Chinese Communist party to carry on the negotiations, but still persisted to suppress Red Army after the Long March. Zhang XueLiang and Yang HuCheng, who were appointed to suppress communist party members, were determined the association opposes Japan. In December 12, 1936, they mobilized a ¡§soldier admonishment¡¨ and had detained Chiang Kai-Shek in Xi’an. Under Chinese communist party mediation, the Xi’an Incident is solved peace diligently, Chiang Kai-Shek involuntary stopped ¡§suppress CCP members¡¨ policy.

Implements the Kuomintang-Chinese communist cooperation, Persist eight years Sino-Japanese War
After the Xi’an Incident, Chiang Kai-Shek was compelled ten years strife, implements the second cooperation with the communist party. After in 1937 ¡§7.7¡¨ emergency, established the Kuomintang-Chinese communist cooperation of anti-Japan had nationality united, Chiang Kai-Shek had positively deployed and directed the Chinese armies to leave for North China and ShangHai, prevented the Japanese invading army. The patriotic soldiers killed the enemy courageously, crushed the Japanese imperialism to attempt to fight a battle based on quick decision and perished China¡¦s invading plan. Chiang Kai-Shek made some promises in the political democratization aspect, released the political offender, the revision reactionary rule, held the people’s political council and so on. The nation appeared a new atmosphere for a while. But Chiang Kai-Shek implemented the one-sided of war resistance and the pure military defense strategic tactic, and waited for international mediates to stop Japan to invade, thus cannot resist the superiority Japanese invading army. North China, southeast and the Central China territory fell into the enemy one after another.
After WuHan defends, the Sino-Japanese War changed over to the strategic stalemate stage by the strategic defensive stage. Chiang Kai-Shek expressed continuous Sino-Japanese War’s determination, Wang JingWei was completely disappointed to the against Sino-Japanese War, the treason surrenders to the enemy. In January 1939, Chiang Kai-Shek was appointed national defense highest committee chairman. He was worried about to the Chinese communist party and the people’s armed forces in the Sino-Japanese War grew rapidly, so he implemented ¡§resists communists, limits communists, anti communists¡¨. And made the friction of resistant communists unceasingly.
After December 1941 the Pacific War eruption, Chiang Kai-Shek positively carried out the diplomatic activities with American, English Union, and as the Chinese war zone commander-in-chief. Obtained US’s commodity and the financial assistance. He sent the Chinese expeditionary army to go to Burma with the British and American Allied armies combined military operation. America, England united China to resist Japan together, they promised abolish in the Chinese privilege which the treaty of equality stipulated, and had signed Chinese and American, Chinese and British ¡§New Testament¡¨. In November 1943, Chiang Kai-Shek attended the Cairo conference, with American President Roosevelt, English Prime Minister Churchill discussed the date of combined military operation plan and the postwar peace condition. In June 1945, he sent Song ZiWen to go to Soviet Union to discuss, in August both countries ministers of foreign affairs have signed “Chinese-Soviet friendship Treaty of alliance” and the related agreement.

Comprehensive launch civil war, Dominant in Mainland China collapse
After victory of Sino-Japanese War, Chiang Kai-Shek under the American imperialism support, sent out the army to seize victory, and incorporates massively the armed forces; At the same time, he carried on the discussion with Chinese communist Central Party Committee commission chairman Mao ZeDong in ChongQing signed ¡§Talk summary¡¨. But he directed 800,000 soldiers to attack the liberated area immediately, and refused the political consultative conference achieved each resolution in January 1946, persisted stubbornly the dictatorship policy on ¡§military and government order unified¡¨. In June 1946, he launched comprehensive civil war, attempted in to eliminate the communist party and the people’s armed forces outrageously three to six months. After encounters People’s Liberation Army to counterattack firmly, the next year March will be compelled to change North ShanXi and the ShanDong liberated area focus attack. After suffers the defeat repeatedly, he changed the strategic defensive by the strategic offense. Finally, Chiang Kai-Shek was compelled to issue an order to contract the defense line, implemented the key defense.
In November 1946,Chiang Kai-Shek convened in NanJing for the national conference, during the conference had drawn up ¡§constitution¡¨, and declaration implementation constitutional government, reorganization government. In fact he still rules as a dictatorship by his Kuomintang ruling. After 1948 spring of constitution country election, he was appointed ¡§President¡¨, and seized no constitution limit of emergency disposal authority, that caused his dictatorship rule to put on the legitimate coat. Regarding patriotic student anti-famine, anti-civil war, anti-persecution movement and struggle between workers and peasant, he issued an order to put in order, sent out the military police to suppress flagitious. In August 1948, he promulgated ¡§Financial Economy Urgent Punishment¡¨, the release gold certificate replaced the legal tender, by a set time redeemed the money foreign currency, compelled the limit price, attempted to get rid of the currency malignancy to inflate, the skyrocketing prices difficult position. The result has accelerated the financial economy collapse, caused the seething popular discontent and the social disturbance. In January 1949, Chiang published the New Year’s Day to state the suggestion peace negotiations, but also proposed preserves ¡§constitution¡¨, ¡§legally constituted authority ” and army’s condition. And Chinese communist party was veto. On January 21, Chiang was compelled to announce retirement, and returned to FengHua (his hometown), but still pulled strings behind the scenes the government and army power authority, destructed peace negotiations. On April 20, Kuomintang resisted on to sign ¡§Agreement on internal peace¡¨. People’s Liberation Army crossed Yangtze River to national march. The People’s Republic of China proclaimed the founding in October 1 1949,Chiang Kai-Shek ended here in Mainland China dictatorship.
In December 1949, Chiang Kai-Shek moved to Taiwan, fought with back to the wall in the isolated island. In March 1950, he replaced heavy responsibility ¡§President¡¨, after that had repeatedly for four sessions, and was elected Kuomintang President continuously. He constructs Taiwan based on ¡§Three People’s Principles of Sun Yat-sen¡¨ summoned to connect his governance in Taiwan. And signed with US to defend treaty together. But he opposed Taiwan independent¡¨, international entrusted¡¨ and two Chinas, has maintained ¡§one China¡¨ national standpoint.
Chiang Kai-Shek died of illness in April 5, 1975 in TaiBei.
His life had going up and down, but he never give up on the defense.