Introduction to CIS Summary Paper

COMPUTERS are automatic and electronic systems used for processing data.Currently, they are used for many different kind of work: in offices, banks and schools (minicomputers), in large institutions like Universities and government departments (mainframe computers), and even at home (microcomputer).Computers are “devices” which accept information in the form of instructions called PROGRAM (a set of instructions telling the computer what operations and processes have to be carried out) and characters called DATA (particular information that have to be processed by the computer and that are kept in the MEMORY.

Their information processing tasks are: storing, retrieving, sorting and selecting data, and perfoming calculations.
Computer’s structure consists of
– HARDWARE (the pieces of equipment making up the computer) and
– SOFTWARE (information in the form of programs and data ).
The most important hardware component is the CPU (Central Processing Unit), the electronic unit which contains the processor (the brain of the computer, processing information and controlling all other devices) and the main memory.
Another hardware components are:
– the VDU or screen, which displaies everything you tape on the keyboard and the results of the computer ‘s work
– the printer, used for printing all information processed by the computer ; printers are of different types, sizes, working principles..
– the keyboard, through which you give the computer instructions and information by typing on it; from each key, the computer receives different electrical messages. Like a typewriter, the keyboard has a layout known as QWERTY (these are the first six letters on the top left of it).
– the mouse, a small box with a ball underneath; when it is rolled in any direction on the desk, the cursor moves across the VDU in the same direction; also, it can be used to point the cursor at icons: special symbols on the screen wich represent the processes that can be carried out by the program. Keyboard, mouse, and also scanner, webcam, microphone are INPUT DEVICES (they give the results of the processed data or information).
VDU, printer, and also speakers, modem, plotter, are
OUTPUT DEVICES ( they introduce data or information on the computer). STORAGE DEVICES provide permanent storage for programs and data. Input devices, output devices and storage devices are included in the PERIPHERALS.