Health and Fitness Leadership Essay – Sports Science

There are many principles and aspects of training that a beginner to exercise should be made aware of, there are other factors out with the actual exercise that the individual’s attention should be drawn towards also.

The first thing a beginner to exercise should be made aware of is the different aspects of fitness involved in exercise:
• Aerobic fitness
• Anaerobic fitness
• Muscular strength endurance

These 3 different aspects of fitness are designed in their own way to help the body cope with training at a high intensity. A beginner should also be informed of a typical format of an exercise session. First of all a warm up should be conducted, this should involve some introductory exercise which is designed to increase the heart rate and get the lungs pumping, stretching should also be part of the warm up for a session, stretching is important because it prepares the muscles for rigorous activity and lessens the chance of an injury to them. The second part of a session should be the main part and may take the format of aerobic or muscular endurance work. The section of the session should be the most rigorous and the individual should be looking at getting their heart rate within their “training zone”. An individuals training zone can be calculated in the following way- 220 minus their age, 60-80% of this figure should be the heart rate they should try to achieve through exercise, for a beginner 60% should suffice. A warm down is also essential in a training session, this should involve light jogging and developmental stretches, the warm down is designed to relax the muscles and prevent soreness 24 to 48 hours after exercise.
When undergoing an exercise regime the individual should take into account the principles of training:

• Overload- for improvement there must be progressive increase in either the volume or intensity of the activity undertaken.
• Specificity- effects are specific to the activities that bring them about.
• Trainability- as a beginner to exercise it may seem quite easy to improve fitness but as the general level increases the motivation of the individual may wane because of limited progress with maximum effort.
• Reversibility- a beginner should be aware that all improvements that may be made will only last as long as regular exercise is being undertaken.
• Threshold- This principle considers the frequency, intensity and duration factors of exercise. A beginner should recognise that a threshold for exercise, e.g. how many hours per week, at what intensity, should be recognised in order to reap the benefits.

Taking into account the above factors it is recommended that everyone should undertake 3 x 20 mins of aerobic exercise every week. Exercise indicates that the heart rate should be at least 60% of maximum. With a beginner goals should be set for improvement, these goals should be realistically attainable and progressively more challenging.

Summary: Start slowly and gradually build up the intensity and complexity of your chosen exercise activity. Chose an activity that you enjoy and suits your needs. Construct a training programme that includes a variety of different exercise activities. Also make sure that out with the exercise regime a healthy lifestyle is being maintained, this can also contribute to overall fitness.