The Role of Water Management in Solving a Water Crisis

“Filthy water cannot be washed.”
– West African Proverb
Utilizing water for our advantage has turned into a typical practice to us; it resembles rubbish that could be dump anyplace without giving an idea of recycling or reusing it. Water is known as a fundamental need of humans regarding drinking, watering plants, cleaning houses or vehicles, washing dishes, bathing, and so forth. In a result, we ended up having too much filthy wasted water. This maxim advises us that this natural resource that we have cannot be replaced nor filtered once it is already used or becomes filthy and having this natural resource has its limits. According to Hazony (2015) that the main problem in regards to water is that it isn’t free. People think that it takes a lot of money, time and process to give us the water that we needed and because of that a lot of countries such as Africa, India, and Sahara cannot afford that water, “water has long been thought of as being an irrefutable human right” (Vandermyde, 2015).

All individuals have the right to have water and have the option to appreciate it, yet what the genuine issue here isn’t generally about how individuals can’t have access to water because its costly, but the real problem is about how we use it and our absence of water management. According to Laura (ed. 2017) Water management means dealing with water in the best possible way. This can be done by local authorities (municipal water management) or it can be done by individuals at home (when we manage how we use our own water supplies). With these said, what are the common instances or situation that shows people’s lack of water management? What are the factors that cause water crisis?

People living with easy access to water don’t really feel the need to be cautious with using it. People tend to abuse something they can see as ample, starting from letting the faucet run, which is a common habit for people especially while they are brushing their teeth, washing their face with soap, they also tend to use their hands when rinsing their mouth, prompting an excessive amount of wastage of water, Next is throwing trash or garbage to marine biological systems or polluting waters such as lakes and waterways, here in the Philippines we have our own special renowned stream that is known to be loaded with junk, and it is the Pasig waterway, many individuals are seen tossing their wastes to water biological systems prompting water contamination. According to a website called Solar Impulse Foundation (n.d.), water pollution has environmental consequences that make water unfit for consumption or use and reduce the available water resource. Pollution is thus becoming one of the main threats to the availability and reuse of water.

Also, flushing our toilet or leaks is also another example of wasting water. According to Stern (2018) your toilet could be flushing away up to 5 gallons of water every time you flush. Americans tend to flush every time the toilet is used, which can waste hundreds of gallons a week. If it’s just urine, flush every two or three times to save water. Leaky tank valves draining water into the toilet waste up to 1,000 gallons of water a month. Don’t ignore a leaky toilet. Fix it. Another one is washing our clothes on washing machines when we wash our clothes in the washing machine; we put excessive water into it or change it immediately. We also rinse our clothes 3 times to make sure that it’s clean. This is an irresponsible use of water. Lastly, is diving on swimming pools when there is an outing especially in summer. Our one of the go-to places during summer is pool resorts, not only because it cost lesser, cleaner and safer compared to beaches. People love diving to pools or splashing waters towards each other, leading to too much water getting wasted. In addition, pools also tend to use a lot of water. In fact, according to Singh (2014) a usual swimming pool takes in 1000 gallons of water in a month of summer because the water is constantly evaporating and more water gets splashed in. Your pool might develop some leaks too which can waste even more water and if you drain out the pool at the end of the season, then whole of the water gets wasted which is too precious for our environment.

The overexploitation of groundwater in India has led to warning decline in groundwater level and consequent stress on groundwater resources resulting in a great threat to groundwater sources sustainability the several factors responsible for this depletion are rough use of precious water treating it as an open endless commodity, lack of awareness among societies about the need and deed of groundwater, excessive drawls of groundwater without having an appropriate mechanism for recharge, lack of scientific input and management protocols, less or no electricity tariff for agricultural and industrial operations, meeting demand irrigation, industrial and other purposes and lastly is overexploitation without considering recharge (Mishira, et al., 2013). These are just few of all the common practices and factors that show people’s lack of water management that resulted to water crisis. So with these common examples presented, how can we stop or prevent these from further happening?

Proper water management is the key we need to avoid conflicts in society that are connected with water. It is also the practice that we need in order for us to reach sustainable development. “When people gain access to clean water, they are better able to practice good hygiene and sanitation. Children enjoy good health and are more likely to attend school. Parents put aside their worries about water-related diseases and lack of access to clean water. Instead, they can water crops and livestock and diversify their incomes. Communities no longer vie for rights to a waterhole.” (Reid, 2019) This simply explains that with water there are more chances for a community to become productive and be developed. With them, having lesser things to handle on their plate and worry about, actually helps them to focus more on trying to improve themselves, their families and the society. We also need to improve our ways of managing water; it is said that some improvements in water management have been made in recent years. But they have come incrementally, at far too slow a pace to address the problem effectively. (Biwas & Bozer, 2014) That is why we need to invest more time and money in making people aware of what is the proper water management. We must then know what is the importance of water management?

Water also plays a very important role in our life and even in our health, it is essential if we wanted to talk about survival. Almost 50- 75% water is in our body. Have you experience someone asking you, if you were to choose in times of crisis, would it be food or water? Whenever I stumble with that question, which is very often I always go and stick with water it is well-known that a person can’t even last for three to four days without consuming water. Unfortunately many people take water for granted and it seems like people always find a way on how to waste water. This makes water management important. Water management is essential in regulating the resources we have, so that we can meet all the water demands of the people. Knowing that water is a non- renewable resource, we need to find ways on how to regulate the usage of water, so that all people will enjoy their rights to it. There are a lot of reasons why water management is important. First, Water is the basic needs of humans, without access to clean water or fresh water humans will not survive, according to Speer (2012) “Without fresh water you will die in just a few days. Plain and simple, no sugar coating, it is a simple morbid fact that helps drive the point across, water equals life”. This only proves how vital water is to us. Without proper management of water distribution a lot of people will lose access to drinking water. second, in terms of agriculture, water is the most essential ingredient to grow crops, farmers use proper irrigation systems to nourish their crops, when water is not properly managed in terms of agriculture, farmers will not be able to recycle waste waters and rains. They will be likely to use a lot of waters that supposedly be for places that needs it like Africa, India, and Sahara.

Water is also important in preventing formations of natural disasters, in fact according to Iyer (2018) “There are extremes in the climate and it is the misuse of water bodies that has led to this problem. Right water management helps in maintaining the cycle of nature and the existing biodiversity.” One example of this extremes is the alarming Global warming, we are very aware of how hot it is already when we go outside and it feels like our skin is being burnt. I often hear my mom lately asking “it is already Ber-months(term used for the start of months ending in “Ber”) and it’s supposed to be cold, but why isn’t it cold yet?” and this only proves that we are currently having this extremity because we don’t manage our water properly. It is also important in terms of conserving energy and water.

Having proper water management helps lessen the use of factories electricity to produce clean drinking water at the same time it helps us to conserve water effectively. Water management has more importance other than the examples I have cited above, it is important in terms of ensuring the availability of water to all people, regulation of water in leisure activities and facilities that involves waters and lastly is solving pollution and water scarcity which is one of the major crisis of water ecosystems that we face today. It is known to be a solution to water crisis. This leads us to our final question, how effective can water management be in terms of solving water crisis?

This research aims to determine the effectiveness of water management in terms of solving water crisis. It aims to see whether the result of implementing water management to countries would lead into positive or negative effect. With that said, the results of this study could be used by the government, organizations, and individuals who are looking for solutions to the alarming water crisis. This could also serve as a reference for future researchers who would like to focus on this particular topic.

The study Effectiveness of Water Management in solving Water Crisis’s data was gathered and analyzed through meta- analysis and was outlined in IMRAD Format. According to Exelcior online writing lab ( nd.), IMRAD stands for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. In this format, you present your research and discuss your methods for gathering research. Each section of the IMRAD structure can take several paragraphs to develop. This structure is also sometimes referred to as the APA format, Meta- Analysis according to Merriam Webster Dictionary (n.d.) is a quantitative statistical analysis of several separate but similar experiments or studies in order to test the pooled data for statistical significance. While on Segen’s Medical Dictionary (n.d.), meta- analysis is defined as a method that uses statistical techniques to combine results from different studies and obtain a quantitative estimate of the overall effect of a particular intervention or variable on a defined outcome; it is a statistical process for pooling data from many clinical trials to glean a clear answer. The aims of meta-analysis are “to increase statistical power; to deal with controversy when individual studies disagree; to improve estimates of size of effect, and to answer new questions not previously posed in component studies” (Hunter and Schmidt, 1990).

According to Himelfarb Health Science Library (2011) Meta-analysis would be used for the following purpose, and its advantages and disadvantages:
• To establish statistical significance with studies that have conflicting results
• To develop a more correct estimate of effect magnitude
• To provide a more complex analysis of harms, safety data, and benefits
• To examine subgroups with individual numbers that are not statistically significant
• Greater statistical power
• Confirmatory data analysis
• Greater ability to extrapolate to general population affected
• Considered an evidence-based resource
• Difficult and time consuming to identify appropriate studies
• Not all studies provide adequate data for inclusion and analysis
• Requires advanced statistical techniques
• Heterogeneity of study populations

Other disadvantages of this method are biases, the potential for analytical sloppiness, lack of understanding of basic issues, failure to consider major covariates, and overstating the strength and precision of the results. Meta-analysis has its detractors. In reality, if carefully performed, it yields useful information, but a meta-analysis of badly designed studies produces erroneous statistics and may be misleading. (Hoffman, 2015)
According to CMA or Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (n.d.) stated that, Decisions about the utility of an intervention or the validity of a hypothesis cannot be based on the results of a single study, because results typically vary from one study to the next. Rather, a mechanism is needed to synthesize data across studies. Narrative reviews had been used for this purpose, but the narrative review is largely subjective (different experts can come to different conclusions) and becomes impossibly difficult when there are more than a few studies involved. Meta-analysis, by contrast, applies objective formulas (much as one would apply statistics to data within a single study), and can be used with any number of studies, Meta-analysis is also widely used in basic research to evaluate the evidence in areas as diverse as sociology, social psychology, sex differences, finance and economics, political science, marketing, ecology and genetics, among others.

This paper is interested in knowing how effective can water management be in terms of solving water crisis. Secondary data review was undertaken on existing studies about water management, effects of water management, specific scope of water management on various areas such as irrigation systems, water sanitation, water governance and so forth. The data was taken mostly from scholarly journals, online published articles and e-books, from year 2010 – 2019 in particular. The data collected was analyzed to see the effectiveness of water management in general when applied to countries in terms of improvement and solution to water crisis.

When looking at the credibility of the data, the researcher looked at 3 factors. First, is why was the study undertaken, their aim in conducting the study is very important because it will be a factor that influences the results of the study as well. Next is the author of the article or who conducted the study, whether is it a university, a trustable site, or if an individual that has expertise in his chosen topic or not. Lastly is the validity of the study. Validity refers to the extent to which a notion, conclusion or measurement is well founded and corresponds to reality. In other words, does it measure what it intends to measure? (SandStrom, 2018) or in simple terms the researcher checked if it’s valid to the chosen topic of study. Also, the data taken was added in this research to serve as additional information.

Results and Discussion

Prosperity is understood to be a state in which people are living and doing well. People are happy and healthy (Jackson, 2011). The goal of our society should be to create the conditions under which it is possible to increase prosperity, within the ecological and natural resource limits of our finite world. Determining just how best to do this involves understanding the complexity of the system of drivers and impacts that affect human well‐being through water security and the risks or benefits to society of alternative policy and management decisions (Cosgrove & Cosgrove, 2013). Here are some of the articles that present the effectiveness of the applied Water Management in different counties that experiences water crisis.

A. Effectiveness of Water Management in Europe in the 21st Century
Research on water scarcity and water management in Europe has accelerated significantly in the past two decades, mainly as a result of growing water demand for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses. Most research studies in the field evaluate water use and management by means of static indicators that depict a one-time value for a given time period (e.g., one year). This paper suggests a dynamic indicator measuring product (here: water) generational dematerialization. The indicator presents a comprehensive approach for evaluating water resources and water management strategies, as it represents a function of both resource use changes and population changes occurring simultaneously and over time. To accentuate the benefits of this dynamic indicator over static indicators as well as its practical applicability for decision-making support, the paper evaluates water management in Europe based on the total water use between 2001 and 2013. The results show that water management estimated cumulatively for the analyzed European countries has been effective for the last 13 years (Ziolkowska, & Ziolkowski, 2016)

B. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Water Management Policies in Bangladesh.
According to (Pal, Adeloye, Babel, & Gupta, 2011) Water resources development and management policies initiatives in Bangladesh are primarily driven by the need for sufficient food grain production for the country’s teeming population and curtailing the perennial flooding problems. It is therefore necessary to investigate whether or not these objectives are being met. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of past water resources development and management strategies on agriculture, food security, flood management and socio-economic development in Bangladesh. The research is based on the historical data of the relevant parameters of the water resources management over the period 1947–2005. The outcomes of the study demonstrate that past policies and strategies of water development have resulted in significant irrigation expansion, especially through intensified groundwater utilization, which has helped to achieve the country’s primary objective of self-sufficiency in food production. However, the provision of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities still remains a challenge in the country. Similarly, the impact of the flood control policies was diverse with success mostly apparent with regard to protection against modest events, while catastrophic, extreme events still effectively defying answer.

C. Rainwater Harvesting: An Effective Tool for Water Crises & its Management in India Scenario
According to a research conducted on the effectiveness of water harvesting which is a type of proposed water management in India states that the investigations verified the extent to which adaptation of the adapted technologies such as water harvesting in conserving water resources in heterogeneous land patterns. The methodology opted for rain water harvesting after appropriate information of land and topography give efficient, effective and significant results. (Mishira, et al., 2013)


Here is a statistical data where the water management practices in Turkey were evaluated. Turkey streaming network has a more complex structure compared to other European countries. In this context, the country is divided into 25 hydrological basins depicted in Fig. 1. In the Turkish setting, it is important to comprehend spatial variability of water resources at the basin scale 9.

There are significant imbalances between flow rates and population in Turkey as shown in Fig. 2. On the one extreme, there is the case of Marmara basin, in which population is approximately four times higher than the flow rates. This condition places significant pressure on sustainable use of water resources, which should be addressed through supply and demand management measures. The other extreme is the case of Euphrates-Tigris basin, in which flow rate is approximately two times higher than the population. In addition to domestic needs, the irrigation water requirement based on food production is also remarkable in the Euphrates-Tigris basin.
As depicted in Fig. 3, the water resources development and management in Turkey progressed through a set of events, and gained momentum with the establishment of General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSI), which are the main regulatory agency in-charge-of operational, investment and infrastructure development plans and strategies in Turkey. The outcomes were integrated into policy and investment actions through preparation of basin scale preliminary master plans in 1960s, which is still active. During the early stages of water management development period, the basic actions were driven through supply management
And/or infrastructure enhancement activities. In the later stages, implementation
Of IWRM principles paved the way for integration of demand driven measures
Into the plans. (Elek, & Selek, 2019) This findings overall suggests that implementation of water developments and management effectively helped the integration of plans in how to be able to let the water resources reach those with high populations which is one of the major water crisis.

E. Water Management in ArRiyadh.
(Abderrahman, 2006) .ArRiyadh is a good example of rapid transformation of a small city, with an area of less than 100 km2 and a population of less than 400 000 in 1970, to a big city with an area of about 1600 km2 with a population of 4.26 million in 2004. The population of ArRiyadh is expected to be more than 10 million by 2020. The rapid development of the city has led to a major rise in demands on water and sanitation services. During the late 1970s until the mid-1990s, supply management practices were used to satisfy the rapid growth in water demands. With the financial support of about US$20 billion from the government, the growing domestic demands of more than 500 million m3/year have been satisfied. About 47% of the water supplied is groundwater pumped from local aquifers, and the remaining 43% comes from costly desalinated sea water from the Jubail plant on the Arabian Gulf coast, 466 km from the city. Sanitation services cover no more than about 35% of the city due to the rapid expansion of its area and the related high costs of infrastructure construction. The leakage from water networks, excess irrigation water from landscaping and seepage from septic tanks have contributed to a rise in the groundwater table, resulting in several negative impacts. A more effective water management approach has been experienced in the city since the establishment of the new Ministry of Water and Electricity in 2001 whose focus has shifted to water demand management and conservation. The results of such new approaches have been positive and promising in meeting the water challenges and in achieving sustainable developments under severe arid conditions.

F. Moving beyond integrated water resource management: developmental water management in South Africa.
(Koppen, & Schreiner, 2014). This article traces the history of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in South Africa since the 1970s. It examines IWRM according to its three common pillars, which are also reflected in South Africa’s National Water Act: economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and equity. The article highlights how the principles of economic efficiency and the environment as a user in its own right emerged under apartheid, while equity was only included in the post-1994 water policies, with evolving influence on the other two principles. In 2013, the Department of Water Affairs overcame the widely documented flaws of IWRM by adopting developmental water management as its water resource management approach, aligning with the political and socio-economic goals of South Africa’s democratic developmental state.
G. Exploring management approaches for water and energy in the data-scarce Tekeze-Atbara Basin under hydrologic uncertainty
(Basheer, Sulieman, & Ribbe, 2019) This study examines management approaches for hydropower generation and irrigation and domestic water supply for the Tekeze-Atbara, a transboundary river between Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan, in above- and below-normal hydrologic conditions, considering current and future water demand scenarios. Satellite data are used to substitute for unavailable or inaccessible ground meteorological and dam data. Based on three examined coordination scenarios, the analysis finds that coordinating the management of the Sudanese dams would bring significant benefits to water supply and energy generation. An optimization analysis is necessary to reveal the full value of coordination of dams in the Tekeze-Atbara Basin.

H. Water Management.
Here is a study conducted on the participation of people on water management practices and its results on saving water. The table 7 indicates the educational attainment of the respondents and their level of participation in mnagement practices. It could be noted that more than two third of the respondents with postgraduate education actively participate in creating awareness of water preservation either individually, or by seeking public assistance or by preventing misuse of water, or by involving women in preserving water at the household level, or by preventing eleakage of water in the pipe lines and suply sources.
More than 60% of the respondents with secondary level of education seekassistance in respect of power supply of drinking water; provision of new tap connections; preventing issuesof water and adoptingmeasure to prevent leakage of water. the majority of the respondents with primary level of education (44.81%) opine their participation in water management in respect of mending damaged taps and pumps personally

More than 60% of the respondents with secondary level of education seekassistance in respect of power supply of drinking water; provision of new tap connections; preventing issuesof water and adoptingmeasure to prevent leakage of water. the majority of the respondents with primary level of education (44.81%) opine their participation in water management in respect of mending damaged taps and pumps personally
Majority of the illiterate respondents (78.57%) express willingness to participate in water management such as mending damaged taps and pumps personally, with a vew to presering water. most of the respondent with secondary level (36.52%), graduate level (58.82%) and post graduate level of education do not take personal efforts to mend the damaged taps and pipes, because maintenance of the water supply infrastructure and repair areto be carried out by the water supply authorities.

Table 8 indicated the occupation of the respondents and their participation in water management oit could be noted that more than half of the respondents form the business groupu (58.99%) participate in water management practices. Like creating awareness of preserving water among the residents seeking assistance to get proper water supply, provisions of new tap connections prevenion of misuseof water and emphasis on the role of house wives in saving water. in additon to these aspect of participation, the majority of the respondents (52.94%) working for the government have more participation and take personal efforts in preserving water.

The proportion of participation is low among the respondents working in rpivate firms in respect of mending the damaged hand pumsp and taps (13.94%), mobilization of local efforts in preserving water (56.92%) and prevention of misuse of water (66.15%)
The respondents in the wage labor group (66.67%) report that they mend the damaged taps and hand pumps personally and do not depend on other agencies. They also participate in mobilization of local efforts in preserving water (58.97%). They constitute the majority (74.36%) in terms of preventing the misuse of water and involving of housewives in preserving water.

From the study, it is clear that respondents have taken out their participation in water management strategies like repairing of damaged pipes and taps, prevention of misuse of water and creating awareness for saving water as the steps taken by them. The result highlight that respondents with higher educational attainments pointed out their participation in water management strategies creating awareness for saving water as the steps taken them. , (Manickavasagam. 2019) These finding sums up that as more people are aware of water management more likely to participate in saving water.

I. Comparative water law, policies, and administration in Asia: Evidence from 17 countries.
Here is another statistical data where it studies the economic development of countries with water law, policies and administration. These are parts of the water management in general. (Araral, & Yu 2013). The survey results for the 17 countries for the two time periods (2001/2002 and 2009–2010) are summarized in a comparative table or dashboard (Table 3) for each of the 19 indicators of water governance. We discuss the results in the section that follows. In summary, our preliminary findings in Table 4 show that, not surprisingly, various aspects of water laws, policies, and administration vary with a country’s level of economic development. This result is consistent with Briscoe’s (2009) hypothesis about the positive correlation between a country’s level of economic development and its state of water governance.

This result, if further confirmed by more studies, suggests a similarity to water Kuznet’s curve (WKC), i.e., the overall quality of a country’s water governance is a function of average income. By implication, as a country’s average income increases, its quality of water governance is also expected to increase. As we explain the succeeding sections, this appears to be the case for certain aspects of water law, policy, and administration.

We find positive correlation between a country’s level of economic development and aspects of its water laws, for instance, with (1) legal accountability (L3) for water sector officials (9.3 versus 4.7, 4.3 for high, low, and middle‐income countries, respectively); (2) tendency toward centralization (L4) of water governance (8 versus 4.6, 4.5); and (3) more integration of water laws (L6) with other laws on land, forest, and environment (7 versus 4.3 and 3.9). These variations in water laws among high, middle, and low‐income countries could simply be the result of more developed legal systems for countries with higher levels of economic development

The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of water management in solving water crisis. It aims to see whether the result of implementing water management to countries would lead into positive or negative effect. These experiments conducted by various researchers confirmed that using or implementing water management policies could help solve the reasons of water crisis. The findings of these studies suggest that we should implement water management policies not only on households but on global aspects as well. This also suggests that we must do more research focusing on water and sanitation, especially that water crisis is spreading fast. The study contributes to our understanding of water management and to the large collection of references.

The major limitations to this study according to (De Vaus, 2001) are Lack of information which severely limit the type of analyzes and conclusions that can be reached. In addition, the more dissimilarity there is in the results among individual studies [heterogeneity], the more difficult it is to justify interpretations that govern a valid synopsis of results, Small violations in defining the criteria used for content analysis can lead to difficult to interpret and/or meaningless findings, A large sample size can yield reliable, but not necessarily valid, results, A lack of uniformity regarding, for example, the type of literature reviewed, how methods are applied, and how findings are measured within the sample of studies you are analyzing, can make the process of synthesis difficult to perform, Depending on the sample size, the process of reviewing and synthesizing multiple studies can be very time consuming.

Considerably more work will need to be done; I recommend elaborating more the definition of water management and water crisis and widening the range of categories. I also recommend having longer research period to be able to gather more data and increase as well the number of articles and journals that is required for the data gathering. We must also highlight the benefits of water management on micro aspect like households.

Water crisis is one of the major crisis in various parts of the world and as time pass by, and as individuals becomes progressively mindful of how enormous the issue is, heaps of individuals starts to look for a solution and one of that is the Water Management. Almost 2.3 billion people live without adequate sanitation facilities. Unless we change the way we use water, it is estimated that by 2025, 1.8 billion people will live in areas of severe water scarcity and two-thirds of the world’s population will have dangerously stressed water supplies (Anonymous 2019)

Gradually and progressively, proper water management program was already being adopted by some countries to try and solve their depleting water resources. This paper tackles the worldwide water crisis and highlights the role of water management as an answer, with the use of IMRAD style of writing and Meta – analysis as a technique for data gathering so that we can build up a progressively right gauge of impact extent. The result of various studies compiled in this research shows that such practices of water management resulted as positive. Thus, shows that water management is viable in tackling the alarming water crisis.

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