Benchmarking Money Transfer Services

Money transfer overseas is that process in which money can be transferred from one location to another. Various companies are offering this type of services to a large number of customers. Money transfer process is fast, reliable, as well as convenient to manage. By these methods, money can be sent or received in any part of the world without any harassment.

Western Union Money Transfer was incorporated in the year 1851 and is a leading financial services provider specializing in money transfer business in the United States.
Western Union Money Transfer offers a wide variety of services to its customers, which include money orders, consumer-to-consumer money transfer and many other types of commercial services. In 2006, the number of operating units of the Western Union Money Transfer was 2700,000 with branches of this renowned financial service in more than 200 countries worldwide.

When it comes to sending money from place to place, Western Union is the most well-known money-transfer company around. While Western Union is the forerunner in this service industry there are alternatives. Western Union’s main competition is from MoneyGram.

MoneyGram allows customers to send and receive money through 75000 centers throughout 175 countries across the world. MoneyGram has been providing trusted payment and financial services since 1940.
MoneyGram diversity of branches gives you choice and convenience, with many offering extended hours so you can send and receive money at a time that’s convenient for you.
MoneyGram claims to be cheaper than the leading money transfer provider, although costs may vary by country and the amount of the international money transfer. Furthermore, Western Union started a strategy to decrease their prices in 2009, and they could be cheaper than MoneyGram. This issue will be presented and analyzed through this research.
1.2 Problem Presentation
In this case study, I’m working with Ahli Bank (quality assurance department), who are looking forward to improve the performance of MoneyGram service in Jordanian market. They need to measure the level of people awareness of their money transfer service as a main competitor of the leading Money transfer service Western Union, taking in consideration that Western Union has a monopolistic position in Jordan. They need also to know how satisfied the current customers with their service in order to make any improvements and to be able to close the service gaps. They need also to plan their marketing strategy accordingly, so they need to know where they should align their plans, how they could increase their market share by increasing people awareness in the first place. They need a real comparison between two services to take a full image about the current situation, and how could Western Union succeed with continuous efforts for improving themselves, and rewarding their customers to keep their loyalty. They need to collect Jordanian feedback and measure their responses, measure their awareness, and loyalty level. So, which attributes should be measured? How much do a quick response, the spread and costs affect customers’ satisfaction? How should they gather the customer expectations? How should the company fulfill these expectations? How could they close the service gap? How could they achieve and sustain a competitive advantage? And how could they shine in money transfer industry in Jordanian market?!

1.3 Why benchmarking
Benchmarking is the master key to becoming the best; and it is one of the most effective means to identify improvements which can make a significant difference to our service. This improvement could be defined as increasing customer satisfaction in the most effective manner.
In this research, we are trying to provide Ahli Bank with solid data about the awareness and performance of MoneyGram service comparing with the main competitor Western Union.

1.4 Purpose
1. To highlight money transfer services in Jordan.
2. To benchmark money transfer services – MoneyGram and Western Union – in the following dimensions:
– Spread
– Cost
– Awareness
– SERVQUAL five dimensions:
Empathy, and

3. To discover the gaps between MoneyGram and Western Union, and come up with recommendation that may close the gaps and help Ahli Bank to improve the performance of MoneyGram.

1.5 Strategy
The strategy in this project as follows:
1. Distributing a survey which built on SERVQUAL model, the results of this survey are analyzed and measured to give us a feedback about the gap between MoneyGram and the money transfer leader Western Union.
2. Visiting the suppliers of money transfer services (banks, and money exchange agents)
3. Electronic awareness survey to measure the awareness level of MoneyGram service as a competitor of Western Union.
4. Calculating the net promoter score NPS, to measure the responses on the recommend question, and measure the loyalty of customers.
5. Collecting information about the cost and spread of both services.

1.6 Limitations

1. Limited time to complete the study. So we can’t conduct interviews with money transfer users to get more information about their needs and attitudes.
2. Confidentiality of data regarding the visited agents, especially when they know the visit is for research purposes.
3. Confidentiality of Ahli bank documents: all data are gathered outside the bank, using surveys and mystery shopping.
4. Jordanian culture:
Jordanian can’t understand the importance and added values of research, so they keep their information confidential, they are preservatives from participating in surveys, and they are not aware of their requirements and needs when they are answering the service quality questions. These issues complicate data collection process.
2.0 Methodology
2.1 Process Analysis – Flowchart
The following flowchart represents the process of sending and receiving money through money transfer agents.

2.2 SERVQUAL Survey
SERVQUAL is an instrument for measuring how customers perceive the quality of a service. This method is based on the five quality dimensions:
Tangibles – the appearance of the physical facilities and materials related to the service
Reliability – the ability to perform the service accurately and dependably
Responsiveness – the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service
Assurance – the competence of the system and its security, credibility and courtesy
Empathy – the ease of access, approachability and effort taken to understand customers’ requirements
The data obtained from this tool can be used to compute service‐ quality gaps. By examining these various gap scores a company can not only asses its overall quality of service as perceived by customers but also identify the key dimensions, and facets within those dimensions, on which it should focus its quality improvement efforts.

Our survey in this project is based on SERVQUAL instrument, with 20 questions to cover the service quality five dimensions, 4 questions each (See Appendix 1).
We had distributed the survey in Arabic language, and we tried to cover different age groups, different education levels, and different occupations.

2.2.1 Survey Analysis

Sample size: 64 participants (Random sampling)
48 responses were included in our analysis. (75%)
16 responses were excluded from our analysis (25%). These responses were from Ahli bank employees, which could bias our analysis to MoneyGram.
Western Union users: 67% of the sample  81% using money exchange subagents
19% using banks
MoneyGram users: 23% of the sample  18% using money exchange subagents
82% using banks
Other services users (SpeedCash, Wire transfer …): 10% of the sample supplied by banks

Sample demographics:

Demographic variables Segments and percentages
Gender 52% Male
48% Female
Age group 2% Less than 21
48% 21 to 30
25% 31 to 40
17% Above 41 years
Educational level 45% Bachelor
6% Master and above
13% College and less
36% Unspecified
Occupation Teachers, Lawyers, Pharmacists, Managers, students…
Table 1: SERVQUAL survey sample demographics

2.2.2 SERVQUAL methodology
1. The answers of survey 20 questions were entered in an Excel sheet, where the answers of Western Union users separated from the answers of MoneyGram users.
2. Find the average score for every statement of 20 statements.
3. Calculate the Gap Score for each of the statements where the Gap Score = Perception – Expectation. (We have considered the expected score to be 4.25 for all questions)
4. Obtain an average Gap Score for each dimension of service quality by finding the average gap score for the statements that constitute the dimension.
5. Calculate the importance weights for each of the five dimensions of service quality constituting the SERVQUAL scale. The sum of the weights should add up to 100. We had distributed the dimensions statements (in Appendix 2) for some people where every statement represents a one specific dimension (Sample: 30 participants)
The average weight score for each dimension after analyzing the responses is displayed in the table 2.
6. Calculate the weighted average gap score for each of the five dimensions of service quality multiplying the average gap score for every dimension by the weighted scores. Then sum the calculated scores to obtain the average weighted gap score. (See table 2)
7. Calculate the weighted average score for each of the five dimensions of service quality by weighting the average score to the weight for each dimension (for example: Tangibility weighted score = ( 3.84 * 18.93 )/5 = 14.55). Then sum the calculated scores to obtain the average weighted score. (See table 3)

2.2.3 Findings
Our results for Western Union and MoneyGram in the following tables:

Dimension Western Union MoneyGram
Average Gap Score Weight Weighted Gap Score Average Gap Score Weight Weighted Gap Score
Tangibility -0.41 18.93 -7.69 -0.55 18.93 -10.33
Reliability -0.32 22.78 -7.29 -0.43 22.78 -9.84
Responsiveness -0.25 22.44 -5.61 -0.41 22.44 -9.18
Assurance -0.14 18.9 -2.66 -0.41 18.9 -7.73
Empathy -0.38 16.95 -6.36 -0.64 16.95 -10.79
Average Weighted gap score
-29.61 -47.86
Dimension Western Union MoneyGram
Average Score Weight Weighted Score Average Score Weight Weighted Score
Tangibility 3.84 18.93 14.55 3.70 18.93 14.03
Reliability 3.93 22.78 17.90 3.82 22.78 17.40
Responsiveness 4.00 22.44 17.95 3.84 22.44 17.24
Assurance 4.11 18.9 15.53 3.84 18.9 14.52
Empathy 3.88 16.95 13.14 3.61 16.95 12.25
Average Weighted score 79.08 75.43
Table 2: SERVQUAL Weighted Gaps Scores

Table 3: SERVQUAL Weighted Scores

Chart 1: Displaying weighted gap scores

Chart 2: Displaying weighted scores

1. A negative Gap score indicates that the actual service (the Perceived score) was less than what was expected. Accordingly, we can find that the two services are supplied under expectation, but with higher gap for MoneyGram service.
2. The highest gaps are in tangibility and empathy dimensions for MoneyGram, they should work more on these two dimensions to provide them in more quality oriented manner.

2.3 Awareness Survey

Electronic survey had been created using Vista survey ( It was arranged logically, so the questions that will be presented are related to the previous answers. For example, if the participant said that he never heard about MoneyGram, I will not ask him if he ever used MoneyGram service. (The complete sets of questions in the awareness survey are listed in Appendix 4).

2.3.1 Survey Analysis
Sample size: 73 participants
Western Union users  56% (40 participants)
MoneyGram users  8% (6 participants)
Other services users  5%
Not current users of money transfer services  34%

Sample Demographics:
Demographic variables Segments and percentages
Gender 52% Male
48% Female
Age group 7% 18 to 25
47% 26 to 30
27% 31 to 35
5% 36 to 40
14% Above 41

Employment Status 79% Employed full time
3% Employed part time
12% Homemaker
Full time student
3% Retired
3% Currently unemployed

2.4 Net Promoter Score (NPS)
NPS is a management tool that can be used to gauge the loyalty of a firm’s customer relationships. We can calculate NPS based on the answer of the recommend question in the survey, the answers are classified as follows:
• Promoters – who answered YES – are loyal enthusiasts who will keep buying and refer others, fueling growth.
• Passives – who answered Not Sure – are satisfied but unenthusiastic customers who are vulnerable to competitive offerings.
• Detractors – who answered NO – are unhappy customers who can damage your brand and impede growth through negative word-of-mouth.
NPS captures two key behaviors:
1. Buyer economics (the value of the customer)
2. Referral economics (their potential value through referral).
The first deals with an individual’s own choices and the second with how those choices influence others. The difference— the net— is the metric of interest. It takes into account the positive impact of Promoters (higher repurchase rates and referrals) and the negative impact of Detractors (negative comments, lower repurchase rates) to yield a summary metric.
Higher percentages of Detractors also link to reduced growth rates. This evidence shows that it is not just Promoters but the absence of Detractors that create a positive growth engine.

The ultimate question (The recommend question)
We asked the following question in our survey to calculate NPS:
Q. Would you recommend the service provider for other people?

Results from SERVQUAL survey:

Western Union users MoneyGram users
YES 84% 74%
Not Sure 13% 26%
NO 3% 0%

NPS = Promoters – Detractors
NPS (Western Union) = 84% – 3% = 81%
NPS (MoneyGram) = 74% – 0% = 74%

Results from electronic awareness survey:

Western Union users MoneyGram users
Absolutely, all of the time (Promoters) 36% 17%
Most of the time (Promoters) 39% 67%
May or may not (Passives) 15% 17%
Probably not (Detractors) 5% 0%
Would never recommend (Detractors) 5% 0%

NPS = Promoters – Detractors
NPS (Western Union) = (36% + 39%) – (5% + 5%) = 65%
NPS (MoneyGram) = (17% + 67%) – 0% = 84%

– NPS for Western Union is greater than MoneyGram, so Western Union users could promote the service more than MoneyGram users.
– We have some passives for both services (higher for MoneyGram); those can be attracted by competition easily.
– MoneyGram in the two surveys doesn’t’ have detractors. This is a good indication of potential growth. But in this study, we can relate this result to the few no. of participants from MoneyGram users. That’s because, we used random sampling, and we expect the percentage of MoneyGram users in the sample is reflecting the actual no. of users.
– The two scores are considered quite high, we need more research and interviewing people with open-ended questions to elaborate more about their attitude toward their money transfer service, and this should be conducted by Ahli bank on 60% of MoneyGram users as this research has limited time to be finished.
– NPS is a good methodology to adapt it. It needs more research, and group discussions to be implemented in the bank.

2.5 Area of study
Our area of study is Gardenz Street. We did choose this street as it has a well and large coverage of money transfer agencies. We have found that the spread of the services over the banks and money exchange agencies in this area as follows:
15% MoneyGram
85% Western Union

International spreading of the two services as follows:
97% for Western Union
3% for MoneyGram
We can find that these international spreading numbers are reflected into Jordanian market, regardless that the spread in our area of study was quite higher than international numbers.

2.6 Mystery Shopping

Duration: 3 days
Location: Banks and money exchange agents in Gardenz Street.
Tool: Checklist (see Appendix 3)
The visited suppliers:
Western Union MoneyGram
Banks Housing bank
Jordan Kuwait bank
Commercial bank Jordan bank
Ahli bank
Money exchange agents Petra ME
Aboud ME
AlFurat ME
AlAlami ME
Abu Shaikha ME Mesharbesh ME
AlRaed ME

The above listed money transfer suppliers were visited. These suppliers are located in our study area (Gardenz Street). We are looking in our visits to check if the standards are implemented and to which level they are performed. We have covered the following dimensions in the visits: the sign, promotion and feature knowledge, application filling, and extra benefits provided to customers.


Suppliers average scores:

Western Union MoneyGram
Banks 3.51 3.19
Money exchange agents 2.72 2.6

Field Observations:
1. The banks supply the service in more quality oriented manner. That’s because the banks are well prepared for providing financial services, and the money transfer is one of the main services delivered to customers.
2. It was obvious that the banks don’t give attention and priority for money transfer service as one of their services, so they don’t have a specific employee for this service, the customer should wait in a queue most of the time, and you could wait a long time to find the responsible part inside the branch to deliver the service to you.
3. The money exchange agent can supply the service without long waiting time, they have specific employee to serve you, and the time for delivering the service is more convenient for customers. But the money exchange agents don’t follow standards in tangibility (cleanness, modern equipments…), and their employees don’t have the required knowledge in delivering this service.
4. The sign of Western Union is attractive in its color and size in most suppliers’ offices. That’s doesn’t apply on MoneyGram at all, it could takes you long time to perceive an agent while you are passing by the car.

2.7 Price Comparison (Transfer Fees)
The transfer fees are set from the international companies of both services.
Sending $1000 from Jordan to the following countries:
MoneyGram Western Union
Egypt $12 $15
Philippines $12 $15
Srilanka $19.9 $15
Indonesia $9 $10
Emirates $50 $47

– There are some countries were MoneyGram is cheaper than Western Union.
– Western Union revised their prices and minimized them since one month from starting this study. It was more expensive than MoneyGram.
– Western Union used the same low transfer fee for all the countries which have high number of labors inside Jordan. Those labors are the most targeted customers who care about the prices to be low and competitive.

3.0 Outcome

1. Benchmarking results
Based on the previous analysis, each one of the following criteria will be given a rate out of 5, to be able to determine the gap between the two services.
Western Union MoneyGram
SERVQUAL Dimensions
3 2
Market Share
5 1
Awareness 4
Price 4 4
5 2

The above table shows that the Western Union is better performing in most criteria, and the price is the only one that provided on the same level from both services.

2. Awareness
The following pie chart illustrates the awareness level of MoneyGram in Jordanian market (based on awareness survey results)

3. Service quality
The service quality in which money transfer service is supplied should be revised and work on for both services to be more reliable and competitive, but MoneyGram should work more on service quality as it has higher gap from expected performance than Western Union in SERVQUAL dimensions.

4. Spread
The spread of MoneyGram suppliers over the studied area was in very low percentage comparing with Western Union. But we can find lower percentage in international spreading of MoneyGram which could reflect on most areas inside Jordan (3% MoneyGram, 97% Western Union)

5. Customers Preference
The customers would like to use money exchange agencies for transferring money for their prompt service and availability for longer period of time, but the most suppliers of MoneyGram are banks!!!

6. Money Transfer Fees
The transfer fees of the two services could be on the same level, some countries are cheaper for Western Union, and some are cheaper for MoneyGram.

4.0 Recommendations

1. Increase the number of money exchange agents who supply the service on the quality standards of the contactor (Ahli bank). That’s because most of money transfer users prefer to use money exchange agencies for this service.

2. Apply NPS score and its improvement methodology. NPS when combined with appropriate diagnostics and follow-up actions; it drives improvements in customer loyalty and enables profitable growth. Ask the customers the recommend question, calculate NPS form time to time, and seek to increase the promoters and decrease the detractors.

3. Increase Awareness level. Jordanian people are not aware of MoneyGram service as a main competitor of Western Union, and a reliable service for money transfer, and half of them they don’t hear about it before. Accordingly, Ahli bank should start awareness campaign and creative marketing to increase the awareness level.

4. Apply quality standards for money exchange subagents. They should implement Ahli bank quality standards, to deliver the money transfer service as customers’ expectations. That could be applied by providing them with training on service quality, and continuous monitoring for their commitment to standards. International company should assign a budget for these training as well.

5. Review prices with the international company. Provide the customers with affordable and competitive prices to keep their loyalties. Moreover, offer them extra benefits like special discounts and gifts in continuous manner.

6. Review the sign with the international company. It should have more attractive colors and design, and which should reflect the brand all of the time, and the color should be positioned in customer mind for MoneyGram as we always perceive the yellow color for Western Union.

7. Activate online money transfer for Jordan. The online money transfer is available through MoneyGram website for some specific countries. They should negotiate with the international company to make Jordan one of them, so customers can send money from and to Jordan electronically with lesser transfer fees.

8. Continuous quality improvements and benchmarking.
Find new area for improvement; evaluate the processes, benchmark against competitors continuously.

References, © 2008, © 2009 MoneyGram

Ms. Rawan Sharabi
Ahli Bank Quality Manager

Appendix 1 – SERVQUAL Survey

Talal Abu Ghazaleh College of Business

The following survey is built to benchmark the money transfer services and to assess the quality in providing this service. As a user of money transfer service, we would like you to participate in this survey. All data will remain confidential in strict accordance with the ethical standards.

Please answer the following questions as accurately as possible. Thank you for helping me to complete this dissertation research.

Which money transfer service are you using?
Moneygram Western Union Other

What is the service provider channel that you are using the money transfer service through (Name the bank or the money exchange agency)? Why did you choose it for this service?

Read the following items carefully which concerns money transfer service that you are using:

Circle one number for each statement: Strongly Disagree (1), Disagree (2), Not Sure (3), Agree (4) and Strongly Agree (5)

1. The service provider has modern looking equipment. (LCD, furniture, PCs, printers, queuing system, …) 1 2 3 4 5
2. The service provider has clean office and equipments 1 2 3 4 5
3. The service provider’s reception desk employees are neat appearing (well dressed, well shaved, suitable makeup, …) 1 2 3 4 5
4. Materials associated with the service (such as postures, brochures) are visually appealing at the service provider. 1 2 3 4 5
5. When the service provider promises to do something by a certain time, it does so. 1 2 3 4 5
6. When you have a problem, the service provider shows a sincere interest in solving it. 1 2 3 4 5
7. The service provider performs the service right the first time. 1 2 3 4 5
8. The service provider insists on error free records. 1 2 3 4 5
9. Employees in the service provider tell you exactly when the services will be performed. 1 2 3 4 5
10. Employees in the service provider give you prompt service. 1 2 3 4 5
11. Employees in the service provider are always willing to help you. 1 2 3 4 5
12. Employees in the service provider are never too busy to respond to your request. 1 2 3 4 5
13. The behaviour of employees in the service provider instils confidence in you. 1 2 3 4 5
14. You feel safe in your transactions with the service provider. 1 2 3 4 5
15. Employees in the service provider are consistently courteous with you. 1 2 3 4 5
16. Employees in the service provider have the knowledge to answer your questions. 1 2 3 4 5
17. The service provider has operating hours convenient to all its customers. 1 2 3 4 5
18. The service provider has employees who give you personal attention. 1 2 3 4 5
19. The employees of the service provider understand your specific needs. 1 2 3 4 5
20. The service provider has your best interests at heart. 1 2 3 4 5

Would you recommend the service provider for other people?

Yes No Not sure

Name(Optional): _____________________________

Gender: Male Female
Age: _______________
Nationality: ___________________________________
Education: ____________________________________
Occupation: ___________________________________

Appendix 2 – Survey Dimensions Weighting

German Jordanian University

Money Transfer Services Benchmarking

Listed below are the five sets of features pertaining to money transfer suppliers. We would like to know how much each of these sets of service features is important to you. Please set the points for each of the following features according to how important it is to you (Points: from 1 to 5).

Features Points
1. The appearance of the suppliers’ physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication materials.
2. The suppliers’ ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately
3. The suppliers’ willingness to help customers and provide prompt service.
4. The knowledge and courtesy of the suppliers’ employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence.
5. The caring individual attention the supplier provides its customers.

Appendix 3 – Mystery Shopping Checklist

نموذج تقييم ابعاد خدمة الموني جرام و الوسترن يونيون
ممتاز ضعيف لا ينطبق
الوصف 5 4 3 2 1
حجم اللوحة
التصميم :
وضوح اللوحة
وضوح معالم الاسم
التسويق و الالمام بخصائص الخدمة
المهارة بعرض الخدمة
دقة المعلومة
اللطافة و اللباقة
المعرفة بخصائص الخدمة
المعرقة بمزايا الخدمة
المعرفة بشروط و اجراءات الخدمة
المعرفة بآخر المستجدات عن الخصائص و المزايا
المعرفة بالشرائح
المعرفة بالعمولات و اجراءات الصرف
المعرفة بإجراءات ما بعد ارسال الخدمة
الكفاءة بشكل عام
تعبئة الطلب
تعبئة الطلب على نموذج خاص من قبل العميل
تعبئة الطلب بواسطة الموظف (الكتروني)
وضوح بيانات الطلب
سرعة تعبئة البيانات
المدة الزمنية لتعبئة الطلب
وجود اسئلة تضمن الآمان للخدمة
المزايا الاضافية
هدايا رمزية
خصومات على الخدمة
سحوبات دورية

Appendix 4 – MoneyGram Awareness Survey

The following survey is built to measure the awareness level of MoneyGram service.

Please answer the following questions as accurately as possible. Thank you for helping me to complete this dissertation research.

1. Have you ever heard of MoneyGram service before?
( ) Yes
( ) No
( ) Not sure

2. How did you first hear about MoneyGram service?
( ) Magazine
( ) Radio
( ) Internet
( ) TV
( ) Friend or relative
( ) Other

If Other, please specify:

4. Are you currently using the money transfer service?
( ) Yes
( ) No

5. Which is the money transfer service you are using?
[ ] MoneyGram
[ ] Western Union
[ ] Express
[ ] Other

If Other, please specify:

6. Overall, how would you rate MoneyGram service?
( ) Excellent
( ) Very Good
( ) Good
( ) Fair
( ) Poor

8. What is your favorite thing about MoneyGram service?

9. Would you recommend your money transfer service to another person?
( ) Absolutely, all of the time
( ) Most of the time
( ) May or may not
( ) Probably not
( ) Would never recommend

10. Name (Optional):

11. Your age:
( ) Under 18
( ) 18 to 25
( ) 26 to 30
( ) 31 to 35
( ) 36 to 40
( ) 41 to 45
( ) 46 to 50
( ) 51 or older

12. Your Gender:
( ) Male
( ) Female

13. Which category best describes your employment status?
( ) Employed full time
( ) Employed part time
( ) Homemaker
( ) Full time student
( ) Retired
( ) Currently unemployed
( ) Disabled
( ) Don’t Know/Not Applicable

Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 4
1.1 Background 4
1.2 Problem Presentation 5
1.3 Why benchmarking 5
1.4 Purpose 5
1.5 Strategy 6
1.6 Limitations 6
2.0 Methodology 6
2.1 Process Analysis – Flowchart 6
2.2 SERVQUAL Survey 8
2.2.1 Survey Analysis 8
2.2.2 SERVQUAL methodology 9
2.2.3 Findings 10
2.3 Awareness Survey 12
2.3.1 Survey Analysis 12
2.4 Net Promoter Score (NPS) 14
2.5 Area of study 15
2.6 Mystery Shopping 16
2.7 Price Comparison (Transfer Fees) 18
3.0 Outcome 20
4.0 Recommendations 22
References 23
Appendix 1 – SERVQUAL Survey 24
Appendix 2 – Survey Dimensions Weighting 27
Appendix 3 – Mystery Shopping Checklist 28
Appendix 4 – MoneyGram Awareness Survey 29