Traditionally, the term "management" refers to the activities (and often the group of people) involved in the four general functions: planning, organising, leading and controlling of resources. The four functions recur throughout the organisation and are highly integrated to achieve a certain organisational goal in an effective and efficient manner (Samson & Daft, 2009). Emerging trends in management include assertions that leading is different than managing, and that the nature of how the four functions are carried out must change to accommodate a "new paradigm" in management (McNamara, 2008). These aspects carry specific characteristics of good management which would positively impact an organisation’s outcomes and stakeholders.