Dyson (2000) defines critical literacy as continuing process of learning that enables students to use speaking, thinking, reading, writing, listening to, evaluating and effectively constructs meaning, interact, and communicate in real-life situations. Students are continually learning, reflecting, thinking, and assume responsibility for continuing to grow and develop their literacy. According to Anderson (1994) literacy development starts at birth and is formed by cultural values and beliefs, prior knowledge, and social interactions. When students are trying to process new information they use prior knowledge to build a foundation to solve problems, share ideas and meaningful construction, to build development.
First let me define “designer babies”. The Oxford English Dictionary defines this as “a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with in vitro fertilization to ensure the presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics” (Soanes, C., and A. Stevenson). The research has been going on for a long time. It started back in 1976 when the first successful genetic manipulation took place on mice, in efforts to produce more accurate disease models and test subjects (web.mit.edu). At the present time it is illegal to create “designer babies” so it’s not something we will be dealing with tomorrow. Let me get back to what a “designer baby” means but in layman’s terms. It means you can choose what kind of features your child has before they are born. This is because of genetic screening. A good thing about genetic screening is that it has made it possible to eliminate genes associated with several genetic defects and terminal illnesses, but it has also made it possible (in the future, not now) for parents and doctors to genetically screen embryos to be able to give that child characteristics of their choosing. How would “designer babies” be made? This question is answered in the beginning of this paragraph, but to put it in simpler terms, an embryo is created by in vitro fertilization, a single cell is removed from that embryo, the cell is genetically tested, and then the parents decide whether to implant the embryo in the mother’s womb or dispose of it (www.bionetonline.org).
“Those who do not study history are doomed to repeat it.” These are the famous words of the philosopher and poet Georges Santayana (1863 – 1952). The study of military history at one time was reserved for the officer cast of many military organizations however with the advent of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps in the American Army, the need to understand past military events are essential. Without comprehensive sturdy of our military past, we as a professional organization will be doomed to fail in any future operations. American Military NCOs provide the backbone of the most powerful military force on the planet. Thus the study of military history only strengthens the support this backbone provides. "To be a successful Soldier, you must know history." Patton.