Traditionally, the term "management" refers to the activities (and often the group of people) involved in the four general functions: planning, organising, leading and controlling of resources. The four functions recur throughout the organisation and are highly integrated to achieve a certain organisational goal in an effective and efficient manner (Samson & Daft, 2009). Emerging trends in management include assertions that leading is different than managing, and that the nature of how the four functions are carried out must change to accommodate a "new paradigm" in management (McNamara, 2008). These aspects carry specific characteristics of good management which would positively impact an organisation’s outcomes and stakeholders.
Although he lived 2,392 years ago, Aristotle’s ideas and theories of how people think of themselves and their life are still discussed today. What is good? What are we trying to achieve? Why, how, what, and when are all questions we as people ask ourselves all the time. Aristotle tries to help us understand ourselves and the questions that consume the human mind. The core of his ideas comes down to what appears to be may or may not be the true reality; the difference of true good and what seems good. In order to find “the good”, one must understand the function of a human and find the virtuous way of everything; finding excellence in all they do. All of this leads up to the ultimate goal of happiness. True happiness is being all you can be.
The Humanistic Psychologist, Abraham Maslow, developed a 5-Level theory, known as the Hierarchy of Needs, by which to explain human motivation. According to the Hierarchy of Needs Theory, before human beings can seek to fulfill any other needs, our primary biological needs must be met (Maslow, 1970). This first level, according to Maslow’s Theory, addresses basic Physiological needs, including animal-level needs such as air to breathe, adequate food to eat, shelter against the elements, a living environment which is warm enough, sufficient sleep, and even sexual fulfillment on its simplest level (Mathes, 1981). Until these needs are met, humans can not possibly begin to address the meeting of more complex social or psychological needs beyond mere survival of the body. Thus, without the Physiological Needs being met we may experience illness, lack of comfort, irritation and other similar negative feelings in order to motivate us to address these needs and reach a homeostatic level of existence (Maslow, 1970).