Excessive alcohol consumption is an age-old human problem, and costs society an enormous amount of money every year. The first critique this learner would like to expand on is treatment. Treatments consist of different attempts to control the availability of alcohol. Since alcoholism is a disease, then individuals should seek medical treatment. Alcohol alone was the primary substance of abuse for almost 21.5% of all treatment admissions in the United States in 2005 (Inaba and Cohen, 2007). The average age of those with alcohol only as their problem was 39 compared with 35 who were admitted for alcohol and a secondary drug problem (Inaba and Cohen, 2007). The formation of Alcohol Anonymous (AA) in 1935 can now be seen as an important milestone in treatment (Ray and Ksir, 1999). This group supports abstinence as their goal. Everyone agrees that AA has been helpful for many people and, because it has reached more individuals than any other approach, has undoubtedly helped more people than any other method (Ray and Ksir, 1999). However, AA was developed by and for people who have made a decision to stop drinking and who want to affiliate with others who have made that same decision, and it may not be the best approach for individuals who are forced to attend meetings by court order or jail. Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are prevalent, and rates of drinking and AUDs are increasing (U.S. Department of Human Services, 2001). In all age groups, the prevalence of AUDs is higher among men than women, but the rates for women are considerable, with 4%–9.8% of younger women (below 44 years of age) meeting criteria for diagnosis. Psychological and medical correlates of AUDs differ for women and men. In treatment samples, as many as 65% of women with AUDs meet lifetime criteria for another psychiatric disorder (Mann, Hintz, and Jung, 2004).
Sexual harassment can be defined as “Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment (The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2009).” With the definition of sexual harassment in mind one can read an article by Mireya Navarro, titled “His Way Meets a Highway Called Court” published on July 10, 2005 in The New York Times and contemplate if the events that took place constitute sexual harassment or if the events that took place reflect the chief executive’s own personal influence on the organization’s culture.
Patient satisfaction scores in hospitals have steadily decreased in the United States. According to Zwillich (2007), “Americans are more dissatisfied than citizens of other nations with their basic health care, even while paying more of their own money for treatment”. Research has shown that the nursing shortage that has plagued the United States has played a large role in the downward trend of patient satisfaction. Citing a report by Press Ganey Associates, Inc., Sara Nemeth (2007) reports that the higher the ratio between working Registered Nurses in any given state, the higher the patient satisfaction scores will be. From this data, it can be surmised that patient satisfaction will increase as the number of nursing staff increases. These results demand a call to action, and patient satisfaction depends upon it.